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FaQ

Our list of FAQs will assist the applicant to answer all Its unanswered question

What is Radiation?

Radiation is nothing but a process in which Energy is emitted as waves or particles. The complete process in which energy is emitting from one body, transmitted through a medium or space and absorbed by another body.

What is the source of radiation?

Radiation exists at every corner of the earth. The intensity of the radiation verifies from one place to another. Due to low level of radiation, we are unable to feel its impact. It is produced naturally and artificially also. Medical equipment’s like x-ray machines, microwaves, radio frequency, ultraviolet rays, gamma, and others are source of radiation.

How far Radiation can travel?

Depends upon the type of radiation and the ability to penetrate other materials or medium. Alpha and beta radioactive particles can’t travel too far at all, and they are easily blocked due to less penetrating ability. But gamma rays, x-rays, and neutrons travel a notable distance and are difficult to block naturally (particularly for large radioactive sources).

Alpha (α) radiation consists of a fast-moving helium-4 (4 he) nucleus and is stopped by a sheet of paper.

Beta (β) radiation, consisting of electrons, is halted by an aluminium plate.

Gamma (γ)radiation, consisting of energetic photons, is eventually absorbed as it penetrates a dense material.

Neutron (n) radiation consists of free neutrons that are blocked by light elements, like hydrogen, which slow and/or capture them. Not shown : galactix cosmic rays that consist of energetic charged nuclei such as protons, helium nuclei, and high charged unclei called HZE ions.

What do Radioactive Sources look like?

Radioactive sources should be “sealed” as per the law and act. Usually they are very small, their size can vary from tiny seeds; used in cancer treatment, to the size of the tip of a ballpoint pen or may up to several inches in length, depending on the material and its configuration.

How does Radiation affect the public?

The exact effect depends upon the specific type and intensity of the radiation exposure.

Are there any pills to take to protect somebody from Radiation?

Potassium Iodide (KI) protects people from thyroid cancer caused by radioactive iodine. One type of radioactive material that can be released in nuclear explosions. KI should only be taken in a radiation emergency that involves the release of KI. Since the use or release of radioactive iodine from a “dirty bomb” is highly unlikely, KI pills would not be useful.

Who regulates the Radioactive materials & Radiation Exposure?

Our Country has a long-term plan of wide applications of nuclear radiations and radioactive sources for peaceful applications for mankind. Like in; medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Already having several places in the country where such sources are being used. These places are mostly outside of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) installations. DAE supplies such sources. The most important application of nuclear energy in DAE is in electricity generation through nuclear power plants. Around 22 such nuclear reactors are operating now. In view of the above mentioned wide spread applications, Indian parliament through an Act, called Atomic Energy Act, 1962 created an autonomous body called Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) with authority and powers. This Board issues licenses, codes, guides, manuals, etc., to regulate such installations to ensure safe use of such sources and crews engaged in such installations and environment, receives radiation exposures within the maximum limit prescribed by them. Periodic reports are submitted to AERB to demonstrate compliance of its directives. Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) Group of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai and various regional offices carry out necessary surveillance and monitoring of all installations of the DAE on a routine basis and periodic inspections of other installations using radiation sources. Some of the nuclear fuel cycle plants like nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing involve large radioactive source inventories and have potential of accidental release of radioactivity into the environment. The data is provided to AERB and is available to members of the public. In addition, a multi-tier system of AERB permissions is in place to ensure that all aspects of safety have been considered before permission to operate is granted. The stages where permission of AERB is essential are site selection, design data, and several stages during construction and operation. The details required by AERB include provision for treatment and storage of radioactive waste, de-commissioning procedures and provision of costs. In addition to AERB, nuclear power plants must comply with the requirements of Ministry of Environment and Forests and get their clearance. This is given based on Environmental Impact Assessment Report which should satisfy the authorities that no ecological damage will be caused, and the facility will not have adverse effect on the environment. In addition, the State Pollution Control Board where the facility is to be located must permit the site of the plant for its proposed discharges into the environment. It is largely due to the above comprehensive regulatory controls that none of the plants in India had any accident during the last 34 decades of operation. The type of measurements carried out by the ESL’s and results from a few typical ESL’s will be presented.

Why do you need to be careful around radiation?

It is vital to protect ourselves from the harmful impact of radiation. Radiation should be handled sensitively, it has both negative and positive influence in our daily basis life. Radiation is also used for curing sever diseases like cancer, on the other hand, excessive exposure of radiation can lead you to serious diseases like cancer, thyroid, leukemia etc. Radiation can damage our living cell and DNA; thus, it is crucial to be careful around high radiation locality.

What is the worst, Radiation can do to you?

Radiation can even kill you if you are exposed to enough of it. By doing so much damage to your organs and body that your body can’t do no longer operational functions. The regulatory system for radioactive materials is designed to prevent the possibility that anyone could receive an exposure even close to the levels that might suffer a painful and short-term damage.

The simplest preventions against harmful radiation exposure are time, distance and shielding. Limit the time you are exposed to the radioactive source; increase the distance between you and the source; and shield yourself by placing objects between you and the source. These concepts form the basis of nuclear regulation so that we may enjoy the beneficial uses of radioactive materials while minimizing the risk to public health and the environment. For additional information.

What would be the bare minimum quantity of Radiation, which can affect any area or locality?

There is no conception like that. Ionizing Radiation can’t be measured like that. Everything is depending upon the activity of the source.

Is leakage not possible in improper shielding of a radioactive source?

Law and order never allows us to keep a radioactive source without proper shielding. If even that is kept like as said, leakage shall be there and that unexpectedly dangerous for the mankind. Being a professional, we never suggest keeping a radioactive source like that.

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